Is the definition of atheism “a lack of belief in God”?

I have a key that will unlock a puzzling mystery
I have a key that will unlock a puzzling mystery

First, let’s see check with the Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

‘Atheism’ means the negation of theism, the denial of the existence of God.

Stanford University is one of the top 5 universities in the United States, so that’s a solid definition. To be an atheist is to be a person who makes the claim that, as a matter of FACT, there is no intelligent agent who created the universe. Atheists think that there is no God, and theists think that there is a God. Both claims are objective claims about the way the world is out there, and so both sides must furnish forth arguments and evidence as to how they are able to know what they are each claiming.

Philosopher William Lane Craig has some thoughts on atheism, atheists and lacking belief in God in this reply to a questioner.

Question:

In my discussions with atheists, they  are using the term that they “lack belief in God”. They claim that this is different from not believing in God or from saying that God does not exist. I’m not sure how to respond to this. It seems to me that its a silly word-play and is logically the same as saying that you do not believe in God.
What would be a good response to this?
Thank you for your time,

Steven

And here is Dr. Craig’s full response:

Your atheist friends are right that there is an important logical difference between believing that there is no God and not believing that there is a God.  Compare my saying, “I believe that there is no gold on Mars” with my saying “I do not believe that there is gold on Mars.”   If I have no opinion on the matter, then I do not believe that there is gold on Mars, and I do not believe that there is no gold on Mars.  There’s a difference between saying, “I do not believe (p)” and “I believe (not-p).”   Logically where you place the negation makes a world of difference.

But where your atheist friends err is in claiming that atheism involves only not believing that there is a God rather than believing that there is no God.

There’s a history behind this.  Certain atheists in the mid-twentieth century were promoting the so-called “presumption of atheism.” At face value, this would appear to be the claim that in the absence of evidence for the existence of God, we should presume that God does not exist.  Atheism is a sort of default position, and the theist bears a special burden of proof with regard to his belief that God exists.

So understood, such an alleged presumption is clearly mistaken.  For the assertion that “There is no God” is just as much a claim to knowledge as is the assertion that “There is a God.”  Therefore, the former assertion requires justification just as the latter does.  It is the agnostic who makes no knowledge claim at all with respect to God’s existence.  He confesses that he doesn’t know whether there is a God or whether there is no God.

But when you look more closely at how protagonists of the presumption of atheism used the term “atheist,” you discover that they were defining the word in a non-standard way, synonymous with “non-theist.”  So understood the term would encompass agnostics and traditional atheists, along with those who think the question meaningless (verificationists).  As Antony Flew confesses,

the word ‘atheist’ has in the present context to be construed in an unusual way.  Nowadays it is normally taken to mean someone who explicitly denies the existence . . . of God . . . But here it has to be understood not positively but negatively, with the originally Greek prefix ‘a-’ being read in this same way in ‘atheist’ as it customarily is in . . . words as ‘amoral’ . . . . In this interpretation an atheist becomes not someone who positively asserts the non-existence of God, but someone who is simply not a theist. (A Companion to Philosophy of Religion, ed. Philip Quinn and Charles Taliaferro [Oxford:  Blackwell, 1997], s.v. “The Presumption of Atheism,” by Antony Flew)

Such a re-definition of the word “atheist” trivializes the claim of the presumption of atheism, for on this definition, atheism ceases to be a view.  It is merely a psychological state which is shared by people who hold various views or no view at all.  On this re-definition, even babies, who hold no opinion at all on the matter, count as atheists!  In fact, our cat Muff counts as an atheist on this definition, since she has (to my knowledge) no belief in God.

One would still require justification in order to know either that God exists or that He does not exist, which is the question we’re really interested in.

So why, you might wonder, would atheists be anxious to so trivialize their position?  Here I agree with you that a deceptive game is being played by many atheists.  If atheism is taken to be a view, namely the view that there is no God, then atheists must shoulder their share of the burden of proof to support this view.  But many atheists admit freely that they cannot sustain such a burden of proof.  So they try to shirk their epistemic responsibility by re-defining atheism so that it is no longer a view but just a psychological condition which as such makes no assertions.  They are really closet agnostics who want to claim the mantle of atheism without shouldering its responsibilities.

This is disingenuous and still leaves us asking, “So is there a God or not?”

So there you have it. We are interested in what both sides know and what reasons and evidence they have to justify their claim to know. We are interested in talking to people who make claims about objective reality, not about themselves, and who then go on to give reasons and evidence to support their claims about objective reality. There are atheists out there that do make an objective claim that God does not exist, and then support that claim with arguments and evidence. Those are good atheists, and we should engage in rational conversations with them. But clearly there are some atheists who are not like that. How should we deal with these “subjective atheists”?

Dealing with subjective atheists

How should theists respond to people who just want to talk about their psychological state? Well, my advice is to avoid them. They are approaching religion irrationally and non-cognitively – like the person who enters a physics class and says “I lack a belief in the gravitational force!”.  When you engage in serious discussions with people about God’s existence, you only care about what people know and what they can show to be true. We don’t care about a person’s psychology.

Dealing with persistent subjective atheists

What happens when you explain all of that to a subjective atheist who continues to insist that you listen to them repeat over and over “I lack a belief in God, I lack a belief in God”? What if you tell them to make the claim that God does not exist, and then support it with arguments and evidence, but instead they keep leaving comments on your blog telling you again and again about their subjective state of mind: “I lack a belief in cupcakes! I lack a belief in icebergs!” What if they keep e-mailing you and threatening to expose you on Twitter for refusing to listen to them, or denounce you via skywriting: “Wintery Knight won’t listen to me! I lack a belief in crickets!”. I think at this point you have to give up and stop talking to such a person.

And that’s why I moderate and filter comments on this blog. There are uneducated people out there with access to the Internet who want attention, but I am not obligated to give it to them. And neither are you. We are not obligated to listen to abusive people who don’t know what they are talking about. I do post comments from objective atheists who make factual claims about the objective world, and who support those claims with arguments and evidence. I am not obligated to post comments from people who refuse to make objective claims or who refuse to support objective claims with arguments and evidence. And I’m not obligated to engage in discussions with them, either.

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6 thoughts on “Is the definition of atheism “a lack of belief in God”?”

  1. Just saying you don’t believe in God over and over as an annoying mantra doesn’t do anything for your cause… Nor does saying “I believe in God” without evidence either! Not all atheists are shrill and angry, and many who are can probably trace the bitterness back to some negative experience with religious people shunning and ostracizing them. I always say, “I’m an atheist, NOT an anti-theist!” 😉 I simply lack a belief in God, but embrace many fellow conservatives of faith on shared values and common ground.
    https://aladyofreason.wordpress.com/

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  2. I have found the best way to advance the God conversation forward with an atheist who asserts that atheism is merely the lack of belief in God with a few questions starting with the law of excluded middle (all propositions are true or their negation).
    “God exists” is a proposition with a subject and a predicate. According to the law of excluded middle, the proposition is either true, or it’s negation “God does not exist.”
    So, my question(s) to the atheist is regarding the proposition “God exists” is do you affirm the proposition (theism), deny the proposition (atheism), or not sure (agnosticism).
    If the atheist refuses to answer the question and instead reiterates the psychological state of their brain, I usually back away from pursuing the discussion until they are ready to be serious.

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  3. My experience with the intellectually dishonest atheists that you are describing is that they will make all sorts of bold atheistic (and especially anti-Christian) pronouncements, and then, when called on it, will retreat into agnosticism.

    A good example of this was my hero when I was an atheist: Carl Sagan. He made the completely unsupportable claim that “The Cosmos is all that is or was or ever will be.” But, when asked if he was an atheist, he retreated into agnosticism.

    Well, you can’t have it both ways.

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    1. For Sagan to make that claim, he would have to have been omniscient.
      Which, ironically, would have made HIM God.
      Any takers? No? Didn’t think so.
      But I have to wonder: Is the reason so many atheists retreat into this wimpy description of their mental states (“I lack belief…”), instead of addressing the real issue (does God exist or not), actually a tacit admission of defeat?
      They can’t answer our positive arguments FOR God’s existence, about all they can do is bring up the Problem of Evil.
      But what is Evil without Good?
      And what is Good without God?
      (BTW, if Carl Sagan really WAS God, then God really IS dead, for Sagan croaked a few years back).

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  4. You can’t force an atheist to believe in God but neither can an atheiat cause me to believe in magical powers of naturalism that defy all laws of physics and chemistry to make life from non life. Creating a loving organism when it would naturally prefer to keep things in a simpler form and to follow laws of chemistry and physics.

    If an atheist doesn’t want to believe I am fine with that but I will point out al the flaws in their ideology if they try to mock theism. Then I tend to mock how much more they require no scientific principles to sustain their world view

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