Eric Chabot of Ratio Christi Ohio State University has a great post up about the post-mortem appearances of Jesus.
The post contains:
- a list of the post-mortem resurrection appearances
- quotations by skeptical historians about those appearances
- alternative naturalistic explanations of the appearances
- responses to those naturalistic explanations
Although there is a lot of research that went into the post, it’s not very long to read. The majority of scholars accept the appearances, because they appear in so many different sources and because some of those sources are very early, especially Paul’s statement of the early Christian creed in 1 Corinthians 15:3-7, which is from about 1-3 years after Jesus was executed by the Romans. Eric’s post lists out some of the skeptical scholars who the appearances, and you can see how they allude to the historical criteria that they are using. (If you want to sort of double-check the details, I blogged about how historians investigate ancient sources before)
Let’s take a look at some of the names you might recognize:
That Jesus’ followers (and later Paul) had resurrection experiences is, in my judgment, a fact. What the reality was that gave rise to the experiences I do not know. “I do not regard deliberate fraud as a worthwhile explanation. Many of the people in these lists were to spend the rest of their lives proclaiming that they had seen the risen Lord, and several of them would die for their cause. Moreover, a calculated deception should have produced great unanimity. Instead, there seem to have been competitors: ‘I saw him first!’ ‘No! I did.’ Paul’s tradition that 500 people saw Jesus at the same time has led some people to suggest that Jesus’ followers suffered mass hysteria. But mass hysteria does not explain the other traditions.” “Finally we know that after his death his followers experienced what they described as the ‘resurrection’: the appearance of a living but transformed person who had actually died. They believed this, they lived it, and they died for it.”
It is a historical fact that some of Jesus’ followers came to believe that he had been raised from the dead soon after his execution. We know some of these believers by name; one of them, the apostle Paul, claims quite plainly to have seen Jesus alive after his death. Thus, for the historian, Christianity begins after the death of Jesus, not with the resurrection itself, but with the belief in the resurrection.
Ehrman also says:
We can say with complete certainty that some of his disciples at some later time insisted that . . . he soon appeared to them, convincing them that he had been raised from the dead.
Ehrman also goes onto say:
Historians, of course, have no difficulty whatsoever speaking about the belief in Jesus’ resurrection, since this is a matter of public record.
Why, then, did some of the disciples claim to see Jesus alive after his crucifixion? I don’t doubt at all that some disciples claimed this. We don’t have any of their written testimony, but Paul, writing about twenty-five years later, indicates that this is what they claimed, and I don’t think he is making it up. And he knew are least a couple of them, whom he met just three years after the event (Galatians 1:18-19).
The historical ground of Easter is very simple: the followers of Jesus, both then and now, continued to experience Jesus as a living reality after his death. In the early Christian community, these experiences included visions or apparitions of Jesus. 
The references to Paul are because of the early creed he records in 1 Corinthians 15:3-7, and his conversations with the other eyewitnesses in Galatians. Eric has another post where he goes over that early creed, and it is something that every Christian should know about. It’s really kind of surprising that you never hear a sermon on that early creed in church, where they generally sort of assume that you believe everything in the Bible on faith. But skeptical historians don’t believe in the post-mortem appearances by faith – they believe it (in part) because of 1 Corinthians 15:3-7.
If you want to see a Christian scholar make the case for the resurrection appearances in a debate, then here is a post I wrote with the video, audio and summary of the William Lane Craig vs James Crossley debate on the resurrection.
5 thoughts on “What are the historical arguments for the post-mortem appearances of Jesus?”
That’s a great post, WK.
I wonder if any of these skeptics will ever come into the Faith as they witness, if they witness, 1st Century Christianity again in a culture of Marxism?
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Gosh, I hope I don’t have to go through that.
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LOL! But the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church!
Besides, you are already experiencing the early stages of it. Nevertheless, we resist!
Death, burial and resurrection is the foundation of Christianity. It is why that creed is important.
Let a Muslim or Joe Rogan rant about the gospel being perverted later. Smile and go ok well as a Christian our foundational belief is in this creed from a few years after the death of Jesus. So this isn’t later and no one that has any knowledge of the topic believes this was corrupted.
Lay down the foundation of the gospel here before they try to confuse people over a letter changing in some manuscript and a bunch of things that have no meaning.
It keeps the discussion simple and not convoluted and off track because they often love to do this. Change topics to different ones with no evidence for their claim
And for all of us we should every so often go over this simple creed to memorize it and have the reference easy to find on your bible phone app so you can show them the words of the creed.
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Want an atheist to go from contempt to hate? Tell him what’s written here. No knowledgeable Bible scholar denies Christ’s resurrection. when they deny the Lord ever existed, I tell them, “Come up to the 21st century. leave that 10th century blind faith in what you believe behind.” Most atheists are God-haters, not blind faith in atheism. Muslims, I ask, “Why do you follow the teachings of death atheists? If your imam is teaching Jesus was never crucified, he’s lying to you.” Always with love in mind. At times, one must be a hard-case towards infantile atheists, but, Muslims are always ready to debate. Always open to thought.