Study explores whether atheism is rooted in reason or emotion

A conflict of worldviews
A conflict of worldviews

From First Things, based on research reported by CNN.

A new set of studies in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology finds that atheists and agnostics report anger toward God either in the past or anger focused on a hypothetical image of what they imagine God must be like. Julie Exline, a psychologist at Case Western Reserve University and the lead author of this recent study, has examined other data on this subject with identical results. Exline explains that her interest was first piqued when an early study of anger toward God revealed a counterintuitive finding: Those who reported no belief in God reported more grudges toward him than believers.

At first glance, this finding seemed to reflect an error. How could people be angry with God if they did not believe in God? Reanalyses of a second dataset revealed similar patterns: Those who endorsed their religious beliefs as “atheist/agnostic” or “none/unsure” reported more anger toward God than those who reported a religious affiliation.

Exline notes that the findings raised questions of whether anger might actually affect belief in God’s existence, an idea consistent with social science’s previous clinical findings on “emotional atheism.”

Studies in traumatic events suggest a possible link between suffering, anger toward God, and doubts about God’s existence. According to Cook and Wimberly (1983), 33% of parents who suffered the death of a child reported doubts about God in the first year of bereavement. In another study, 90% of mothers who had given birth to a profoundly retarded child voiced doubts about the existence of God (Childs, 1985). Our survey research with undergraduates has focused directly on the association between anger at God and self-reported drops in belief (Exline et al., 2004). In the wake of a negative life event, anger toward God predicted decreased belief in God’s existence.

The most striking finding was that when Exline looked only at subjects who reported a drop in religious belief, their faith was least likely to recover if anger toward God was the cause of their loss of belief. In other words, anger toward God may not only lead people to atheism but give them a reason to cling to their disbelief.

I think the best defense to this phenomena is for the church to not tell people that God’s job is to make them happy in this life on Earth. I think if we spent less time selling Christianity to young people as life enhancement, we would have much fewer apostates. If young people get into their minds that God is their boss, not their waiter, then that is a good preparation for the real world. And all of the challenges that Christians face – from poverty, to peer pressure, to health problems to persecution. Stop expecting happiness, that is not God’s goal for you.

I was blessed to have discovered apologetics at a very early age. This passage from C. S. Lewis’ “The Screwtape Letters” always stood out to me back then:

Do not be deceived, Wormwood. Our cause is never more in danger than when a human, no longer desiring, but still intending, to do our Enemy’s will, looks round upon a universe from which every trace of Him seems to have vanished, and asks why he has been forsaken, and still obeys.

When I was young, I shortened this quote into my motto, which lasted until just a few years  back when I finally started to feel some security. And that motto was “nothing works”. Nothing works. That’s right, so get used to it. Everything sucks, nothing works. Nothing works.

Stop expecting God to make you happy. You are a soldier, and your job is to fight to the last breath in your body for the General. Hold until relieved. You’re damn right it’s unfair. Your whole life is unfair and then you die. Get used to it. When I was in college, my Christian friends and I used to joke that even if we fought our entire lives for God and he tossed us into Hell like firewood, we would still do the same things. We were happy to serve and we didn’t think about whether we were getting what we wanted. We did not take stupid chances, but we just didn’t care about being happy. We felt that God was in the right, and sinful humans were in the wrong, and that it was enough for us to serve on the right side. We didn’t expect anyone to care how we felt, we just expected to serve. And if our first plan failed, we went on to the next plan, and the next, until we found a way to serve in spite of the unfairness of it all.

6 thoughts on “Study explores whether atheism is rooted in reason or emotion”

  1. You should post a supplement to this story dealing with the comments. Have you read them? There was even a comment by a JW. Easy to pick out, he was posting from their NWT Bible. I added my 2 cents to the comments for giggles.

    1. Don’t laugh; CS Lewis, mentioned above, said of his days as an atheist, “I didn’t believe God existed, and I was angry with Him for not existing.” Go figure.

  2. This.
    Atheists love to psychoanalyze believers but rarely even bother to pretend to psychoanalyze their own atheism. When former “believers” speak of theists only believing because their “sky daddy” gives theists ‘warm fuzzy feelings’ you know that they never truly believed. Sometimes believing in God is ‘warm and fuzzy’ and makes you happy. Sometimes it’s frustrating, infuriating, or depressing.
    Sometimes you’re apathetic; like there’s someone named ‘Bob’ living in China. There probably really is a ‘Bob’ in China somewhere but I feel no emotion about ‘Bob’ either way.
    They believed for emotional reasons. They stopped believing for emotional reasons. They can’t imagine anyone believing in God for any other reasons than the same emotional ones that they did.
    They ridicule others by mocking the silly views of God they themselves held and think all others must hold.
    It’s a pity they don’t self-analyze. Plenty of fertile ground for it.

  3. I don’t think anyone changes their mind solely for either emotional or intellectual reasons. Even when emotion is a huge driving force for someone changing her mind about God, there is still a process of reasoning going on. Some atheists that I’ve known, however, claim that their deconversion and the deconversion of other atheists they know is solely due to intellectual factors. That, I find highly suspect.

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