Has Christianity held back the progress of science? What about Galileo?

First, here’s an article from the peer-reviewed journal Nature, probably the best peer-reviewed journal on science in the world.

The article is written by James Hannam. He has a PhD in the History and Philosophy of Science from the University of Cambridge and is the author of The Genesis of Science: How the Christian Middle Ages Launched the Scientific Revolution (published in the UK as God’s Philosophers: How the Medieval World Laid the Foundations of Modern Science).


Few topics are as open to misunderstanding as the relationship between faith and reason. The ongoing clash of creationism with evolution obscures the fact that Christianity has actually had a far more positive role to play in the history of science than commonly believed. Indeed, many of the alleged examples of religion holding back scientific progress turn out to be bogus. For instance, the Church has never taught that the Earth is flat and, in the Middle Ages, no one thought so anyway. Popes haven’t tried to ban zero, human dissection or lightening rods, let alone excommunicate Halley’s Comet. No one, I am pleased to say, was ever burnt at the stake for scientific ideas. Yet, all these stories are still regularly trotted out as examples of clerical intransigence in the face of scientific progress.

Admittedly, Galileo was put on trial for claiming it is a fact that the Earth goes around the sun, rather than just a hypothesis as the Catholic Church demanded. Still, historians have found that even his trial was as much a case of papal egotism as scientific conservatism. It hardly deserves to overshadow all the support that the Church has given to scientific investigation over the centuries.

That support took several forms. One was simply financial. Until the French Revolution, the Catholic Church was the leading sponsor of scientific research. Starting in the Middle Ages, it paid for priests, monks and friars to study at the universities. The church even insisted that science and mathematics should be a compulsory part of the syllabus. And after some debate, it accepted that Greek and Arabic natural philosophy were essential tools for defending the faith. By the seventeenth century, the Jesuit order had become the leading scientific organisation in Europe, publishing thousands of papers and spreading new discoveries around the world. The cathedrals themselves were designed to double up as astronomical observatories to allow ever more accurate determination of the calendar. And of course, modern genetics was founded by a future abbot growing peas in the monastic garden.

But religious support for science took deeper forms as well. It was only during the nineteenth century that science began to have any practical applications. Technology had ploughed its own furrow up until the 1830s when the German chemical industry started to employ their first PhDs. Before then, the only reason to study science was curiosity or religious piety. Christians believed that God created the universe and ordained the laws of nature. To study the natural world was to admire the work of God. This could be a religious duty and inspire science when there were few other reasons to bother with it. It was faith that led Copernicus to reject the ugly Ptolemaic universe; that drove Johannes Kepler to discover the constitution of the solar system; and that convinced James Clerk Maxwell he could reduce electromagnetism to a set of equations so elegant they take the breathe away.

Given that the Church has not been an enemy to science, it is less surprising to find that the era which was most dominated by Christian faith, the Middle Ages, was a time of innovation and progress. Inventions like the mechanical clock, glasses, printing and accountancy all burst onto the scene in the late medieval period. In the field of physics, scholars have now found medieval theories about accelerated motion, the rotation of the earth and inertia embedded in the works of Copernicus and Galileo. Even the so-called “dark ages” from 500AD to 1000AD were actually a time of advance after the trough that followed the fall of Rome. Agricultural productivity soared with the use of heavy ploughs, horse collars, crop rotation and watermills, leading to a rapid increase in population.

I hope this will set the record straight – Judeo-Christian monotheism created the enterprise of experimental science.

Positive arguments for Christian theism

9 thoughts on “Has Christianity held back the progress of science? What about Galileo?”

    1. The Venerable Bede, the most misrepresented geek ever!

      (He’s the guy who theorized that the German and English “Easter” may have come from a goddess named “Ester” that also was the root of the word “east” and symbolized sunrise, which has bloomed into a “Catholics stole Easter from German pagans” thing.)


  1. If someone wishes to be objective, then Galileo was charged for teaching bad science after he promised not to, and lying about it.

    Bad science: making claims without being able to support them.

    If he had been able to offer good evidence, he’d have been fine; if he’d been willing to say (roughly) ‘this is a theory,’ he’d have been OK. If he’d avoided calling his friend The Pope an idiot, in print, he’d have been OK.

    He failed to do all three of those things…..

    Folks rarely wish to be objective.


    1. Ah, here it is:
      There’s a single mother who is a U. S. Military Veteran. She and her two daughters have no heat, not much food, no transportation. They have little materially, but they have each other. I figured out how to publish a less formal version of my thesis digitally, and then I contacted this woman.

      It is only by the grace of God and the help of others that I got here. My defense date was on December 6, the Feast Day of St. Nicholas. The book went on sale immediately afterwards. It is titled Science Was Born of Christianity: The Teaching of Fr. Stanley L. Jaki. My new friend has agreed to accept all of the royalties.

      I hope you’ll buy it, read it, and help me figure out what comes next.



  2. An for a great book on this subject, Rodney Stark’s “The Victory of Reason” details this and more about the effects of Christianity on the world.


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