Why does God let people suffer? Why is there so much evil in the world?

I have a key that will unlock a puzzling mystery
I have a key that will unlock a puzzling mystery

I just wanted to draw your attention to this 4 page essay by Joe Manzari, which is the best darn summary of the state of the art on the problems of evil and suffering I have seen. The problem of evil is an objection to the existence of God based on the presence of evil or suffering in the world. The arguments basically infer that if God is all-good and all-powerful, then there should not be any evil or suffering.

There are two kinds of problem of evil.

The Logical/Deductive Problem of Evil:

The first kind is called “the deductive problem of evil” or “the logical problem of evil”. An exampel of evil would be Saddam Hussein murdering some journalist who told the truth about him. This version of the problem of evil tries to introduce a logical contradiction between the attributes of God and the presence of evil, like this:

(1) God exists.
(2) God is omnipotent.
(3) God is omniscient.
(4) God is omni-benevolent.
(5) Evil exists.
(6) A good being always eliminates evil as far as it can.
(7) There are no limits to what an omnipotent being can do.

In order to avoid a contradiction, we need to explain how there could still be evil, since the conclusion of this argument is that there should not be any evil!So how are we going to get out of this mess? The solution is to attack premises 6 and 7.

Premise 6 is false because in order to eliminate human evil, you would have to eliminate free will. But eliminating free will is worse than allowing it, because good things like love are impossible without free will.

It is in response to this proposition that the Free Will Theodicy of G. W. Leibniz applies. God, valuing man’s freedom, decided to provide him with a will that was free to choose good over evil, rather than constraining his will, allowing him to choose only good.

Premise 7 is false because there are limits on what an omnipotent being can do. God cannot perform contradictory things, because contradictory things are impossible. God cannot make a married bachelor. Similarly, God cannot force free creatures to do his will.

In the same manner that God cannot create a square circle, he cannot make someone freely choose to do something. Thus, if God grants people genuine freedom, then it is impossible for him to determine what they will do. All that God can do is create the circumstances in which a person can make free choices and then stand back and let them make the choices.

One last point. In order to solve the problem of natural evil for this argument, you can point out that free will requires predictable and regular natural laws in order to make free will meaningful. Natural laws mean that individuals can predict what will happen when they act, allowing for moral responsibility. More on that next time.

Inductive/Probabilistic Problem of Evil

There is a second version of the problem of evil, though, which is more dangerous than the first. This is the one you see being argued in debates, whereas the first version is not used because it has been defused as seen above. Here is the second one:

(1) If God exists, gratuitous evil does not exist.
(2) Gratuitous evil exists.
(3) Therefore, God does not exist.

This argument tries to argue that while God may have some reason for allowing free will, there are other evils in the world that are not the result of human action that God has no reason for permitting. Theists usually like to argue that God has morally-sufficient reasons for allowing some evil in the world, in order for the character of humans to develop through suffering and endurance. But what about gratuitous evil, which doesn’t have any point?

Consider the case of a fawn running in the forest, who falls and breaks his leg. Ouch! Then a forest fire starts and the poor fawn suffocates to death in the smoke. Why would God allow this poor small animal suffer like that? And notice that there is no morally sufficient reason for allowing it, because no human knows about this and so no human’s character or relationship with God is impacted by it.

The solution to this problem is to deny premise 2. (You can also deny 1 if you want). The problem with premise 2 is that the atheist is claiming to know that some instance of evil really is gratuitous. But since they are making the claim to know, they have to be able to show that God’s permission of that evil achieves nothing. But how do they know 2 is true?

The problem with 2 is that the atheist is not in a position to know that the permission of some evil X really doesn’t achieve anything. This is because the atheist cannot look forward into the future, or see into other places, in order to know for certain that there is no morally sufficient reason for allowing God’s allowing evil X to occur. But since the atheist argues based on premise 2, he must be able to show that premise 2 is more probable than not.

Manzari’s article also argues why apparently gratuitous evil is less problematic for Christians in particular, because of certain Christian doctrines. He lists four doctrines that make the apparently gratuitous evil that we observe more compatible with an all-good, all-powerful God.

  1. The chief purpose of life is not happiness, but the knowledge of God.
    Some of the things that we experience may wreck our feelings of contentment, but we need to remember that God may be permitting those troubles in order to remind us not to get too comfortable with life on earth, and to think ahead to the after-life. And remember, even Jesus learned endurance through suffering. His suffering was not pointless and neither is ours.
  2. Mankind is in a state of rebellion against God and God’s purposes.
    We humans seem to be on a dead run away from God, trying to keep our autonomy by knowing as little about him as possible. Part of knowing God is knowing what he designed us to do – to love him and to love others. And so, the less we know about God, the more we stray from his design for our lives.
  3. God’s purpose is not restricted to this life but spills over beyond the grave into eternity.
    Sometimes it seems as if our sufferings really are catastrophic, but when you realize that you are offered eternal life without any suffering after you die, the sufferings of this life are a lot less upsetting than they would be if this life was all we had.
  4. The knowledge of God is an incommensurable good.
    This one is the biggest for me. Knowing God and knowing his actual character by studying the historical Jesus is a wonderful counterbalance for all the problems and sufferings of this life. A little bit of historical study reveals that Jesus was not spared the worst kind of suffering in his life, making it is a lot easier for us to bear with whatever God allows us to face.

In section 3, Manzari shows how you can also argue against this version of the problem by supplying evidence for God, such as from the big bang, the fine-tuning, the origin of life, the origin of free will, the origin of the first living organism, the origin of the mind, the sudden emergence of phyla in the fossil record, molecular machines, irreducible complexity, the resurrection miracle, and the objective morality argument.

The argument goes like this:

(1) If God exists, gratuitous evil does not exist.
(2) God exists.
(3) Therefore, gratuitous evil does not exist.

Just support 2 with some evidence, and you win, especially when they can’t support their claim to know that gratuitous evil exists.

The Argument for God from Evil

In the paper, Manzari actually makes an argument for God from evil. That’s right. Far from disproving God, the presence of evil (a departure from the way things out to be), actually affirms God’s existence. How?

(1) If God does not exist, then objective moral values do not exist.
(2) Evil exists.
(3) Therefore, objective moral values do exist.
(4) Therefore, God exists.

That’s right. If evil exists in any sense such that it is not a personal or cultural preference, then objective morality exists. If objective morality exists, then there is an objective moral lawgiver. Game over. If the atheist backtracks and says that the existence of evil is just his opinion or his cultural preference, then this standard does not apply to God, and you win again. Game over again.

So, although the problems of evil look pretty tough, they are actually easy. The toughest part of evil and suffering is the emotional problem. I could tell you stories about what I’ve been through… but then, that’s why the arguments matter. You can hold your position under tremendous fire when you have the arguments and evidence to ground you.

6 thoughts on “Why does God let people suffer? Why is there so much evil in the world?”

    1. Do you see this “balance” as a good? Would it be bad if things weren’t balanced? If so, these are good and evil that aren’t a part of the good and evil groups being balanced.
      Ancient civilizations didn’t see the world as a balance between good and evil as most moderns seem to think they did. Rather balance and order is The Good and chaos and imbalance were evil.

      1. Of course i see balance as good. Everything in this world comes in pairs. What is a man without a woman? What is light without day etc. Actually most ancients did if they didnt there wouldnt be a need for two or gods/goddess inntheir mythology. Everyone has a role to play in life. Greek myths – zeus and hades brothers but Zeus controled olympus &his law was absolute while hades controled both heaven (elysian fields) tartarus (hell). Roman -jupiter ruled the heavens or whatever the romans thought heaven was and Pluto was death and such. Egyptian – ra/horus -the sun-good , set-the night-evil.

        Christianity- god/jesus is good. satan/lucifer is bad. However I think I wrote a blog post about this but sin and evil is supposed to have enter this world because Adam & Eve ate of the forbidden fruit right? But Lucifer was the serpent in the good tempting them to do wrong? Also Lucifer from what I have read is jealous of Gods’ creation of mankind and Gods power – so what Lucifer is displaying is two sins Pride & Envy. So that would mean sins already existed before Eve bit into that fruit. So evil was already in existence with Lucifer himself so evil was already here, it just needed an outlet to spread.

        Plus there is this that makes me wonder as well:

        Bible > Isaiah > Chapter 45 > Verse 7
        ◄ Isaiah 45:7 ►
        Parallel Verses
        New International Version
        I form the light and create darkness, I bring prosperity and create disaster; I, the LORD, do all these things.

        New Living Translation
        I create the light and make the darkness. I send good times and bad times. I, the LORD, am the one who does these things.

        English Standard Version
        I form light and create darkness, I make well-being and create calamity, I am the LORD, who does all these things.

        New American Standard Bible
        The One forming light and creating darkness, Causing well-being and creating calamity; I am the LORD who does all these.

        King James Bible
        I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.

        Holman Christian Standard Bible
        I form light and create darkness, I make success and create disaster; I, Yahweh, do all these things.”

        International Standard Version
        “I form light and create darkness, I make goodness and create disaster. I am the LORD, who does all these things.

        NET Bible
        I am the one who forms light and creates darkness; the one who brings about peace and creates calamity. I am the LORD, who accomplishes all these things.

        GOD’S WORD® Translation
        I make light and create darkness. I make blessings and create disasters. I, the LORD, do all these things.

        JPS Tanakh 1917
        I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil; I am the LORD, that doeth all these things.

        New American Standard 1977
        The One forming light and creating darkness,
        Causing well-being and creating calamity;
        I am the LORD who does all these.

        Jubilee Bible 2000
        I form the light and create darkness; I make peace and create evil: I am the LORD that does all this.

        King James 2000 Bible
        I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create calamity: I the LORD do all these things.

        American King James Version
        I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.

        American Standard Version
        I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil. I am Jehovah, that doeth all these things.


        1. I agree with most of what you say but you seemed to have missed my point. You originally said you thought that evil is meant to balance good. To an ancient that would be like saying, ‘imbalance exists to balance balance.’ Do you see how that makes no sense?
          The way you worded it (and the way movies and TV shows talk about it) you have a pile of good on one side of a scale and a pile of evil on the other. As if both were independent entities. But then there is a balance of the scale that is a good but isn’t a part of our good pile. Similar for evil. This is contradictory and not how the ancients viewed it. Rather Good is balance, evil imbalance.
          In Gnosticism, heavily influenced by Egyptian thought, the Demiurge was evil because he was imbalanced because Sophia made him without her counterpart. Before this everything was balanced and everything was good. Evil wasn’t “needed.”

          Just to nitpick:
          You left out Poseiden. There were three dominions, not a dichotomy.
          Elysian fields would be close to what we think of as heaven but the ancients would have separated these ideas. Elysian fields were not Heaven because humans weren’t allowed in Heaven, only gods.
          Pluto, like Hades, ruled the earth and its insides but not anything on it. The dead go in the earth so Pluto was also god of the dead but Pluto was not death. Mors was death.
          Hours was the sun and day sky. He was also the moon and the night sky. Set was not the night but was a storm and desert god. Nut was the night sky but she wasn’t considered evil.
          If Ezekiel is referring to Lucifer’s in 28:15 (and I think he is) then Lucifer was good originally. He then decided to be evil. He was not deceived like the humans. As such God does create evil in the sense that he made things like free will that can be used to do ‘not good.’

  1. My personal experience is that I’ve been through such suffering because of man’s evil ways that I could not even see a way to keep breathing, but I held on for my boys’ sakes, thinking God had utterly abandoned me. When I started coming out of it, I thought it all had no point, and that it simply proved that people could be terribly evil (but not that God made them that way). And now, I see the point in all of it. I call it my “boot camp” and praise God for every minute of that suffering that taught me so much! I know God loves me fiercely because of what He taught me and the strength He gave me though that suffering. “What man meant for evil, God meant for good”.

    So suffering may come for a while, but as you say, it’s nothing compared to the eternity we will spend with Him. And if we listen and are willing to learn, I think all suffering can be seen as the fire that burns the dross from the gold in our lives.

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